It is a technique to determine the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth. It is an art of measuring Horizontal and Vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between the lines, of determining the direction of lines, and of establishing point by predetermined angular and linear measurements. By actual survey measurements and mathematical calculations, distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas and volumes are determined. The survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections and diagrams.
The technological advancement has drastically improved in the survey pattern for various themes like Cadastral Survey, Topographical Survey, Geodetic Survey, Road & Railway maps, Hydrography, forestry, land pattern, soil, settlements, town planning, environmental study. The technological advancement has now gone to millimeter level accuracy.
The Geodetic survey takes into account the true shape of the earth. It will not consider the dummy shape of the earth. These surveys are really of very high precision and extend over large areas. Plane Surveying: The type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane, or in which its spheroid shape is neglected, with regard to horizontal distances and directions.
Ground Control Point Survey is done to establish the horizontal and vertical positions of arbitrary points. It is used as per the requirement of the project need/site. Such control points are normally established through triangulation and traversing considering the needed accuracy of the project
measurements measured with instruments like ETS/GPS (with very high accuracy – ground survey technique) there are other methods to obtain a meaningful map through aerial photogrammetry and remote sensing.
This type of survey consists of representing the ground features, graphically on paper with a particular scale. The elevation is shown with the help of contours and spot height.
As per the nomenclature, it stands for surveying related to water bodies, i.e. Oceans, lakes, Rivers, Dams etc. In Hydrographic survey, the profile of the underwater ground system is depicted with the help of Echo-sounder/Bathymetry & GPS, positional will be carried by ETS. The onshore and offshore surveying is conducted using related instruments to depict the profile of the structure inside and outside of the water bodies.
Mining Survey is essential and important to control, locate and map underground and surface works related to mining operations. If it is an open mine, then it can work on either in Photogrammetry or in LiDAR survey. If it is underground, we can do this through LiDAR, Total station survey or Manual survey method.
The Boundary Surveying need to establishing the control X,Y,Z on a particular State, National or International boundary as per the requirements. It is demarcated in joint collaboration with the adjoining countries/states and the technology accepted by both sides. Earlier, this used to be done with the help of geodetic triangulation and presently the boundary pillars are established with the help of GPS or DGPS
Construction Survey is important to make layout, locate and monitor public and private engineering works. This is useful to utilities planning and urban development and land acquisition for modern developments Photogrammetric / Remote Sensing Surveying: Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is made to utilize the principles of aerial photogrammetry, in which measurements made on photographs (Aerial with fiducials or Digital Photographs without fiducials or Unmanned Arial Vehicle or High resolution Satellite Stereo pairs) are used to determine the positions of photographed objects